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Dr. Cleaner Pro 1.3.3

Tetrachloroethylene is commercially important as a chlorinated solvent and as a chemical intermediate. In 1990, about 53% of world demand for tetrachloroethylene was for dry cleaning, and it was the cleaning fluid used by about 75% of all dry cleaners. About 23% was used as a chemical intermediate, principally for making 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113); 13% was used for metal cleaning and 11% for other uses (Linak et al., 1992).

Dr. Cleaner Pro 1.3.3


Tetrachloroethylene is also used in paint removers, printing inks, adhesive formulations, paper coatings, leather treatments and as a carrier solvent for silicones. It is used in aerosol formulations, e.g. water repellants, automotive cleaners, solvent soaps, silicone lubricants and spot removers. Tetrachloroethylene has also reportedly been used to remove soot from industrial boilers. Other reported uses are as an insulating fluid for power transformers, as a heat transfer medium, as an extractant in the pharmaceutical industry and as a pesticide and chemical intermediate. It has been reported to be used as an anthelminthic in the treatment of hookworm and some trematode infestations (Budavari, 1989; United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 1990).

Levels as high as 197 mg/m3 were detected in an apartment next to a dry cleaning facility that operated transfer machines in New York State in 1990. In an apartment 30 feet [9.1 m] from a dry cleaners, the level was 1.5 mg/m3. Shops in a mall where there was a dry cleaning establishment had levels as high as 50.4 mg/m3. The air levels were 1.5 mg/m3 in a fish market in the mall, 34.5 mg/m3 in a pizza parlour and 15.7 mg/m3 in a delicatessen (New York Department of Health, 1994).

Tetrachloroethylene was detected in seven of 42 samples of breast milk from the general population in four urban areas of the United States (Pellizzari et al., 1982). In a case of jaundice and hepatomegaly reported in a six-week-old breast-fed infant in Halifax, Canada, the mother's blood was found to contain 3000 µg/L and her milk contained 10 000 µg/L. The father, who worked as a leather and suede cleaner at a dry cleaning plant, had a blood level of 30 000µg/L. The mother regularly visited her husband at the plant during lunch (Bagnell & Ellenberger, 1977; see also section 4.3.1, p. 195).

Jalihal and Barlow (1984) reported a case of myeloid leukaemia diagnosed in a 60-year-old dry cleaner in the United Kingdom. He had had heavy exposure for many years first to trichloroethylene and later to tetrachloroethylene.

Acute exposure to tetrachloroethylene by inhalation results in central nervous system depression. Liver and kidney toxicity have been reported as effects of acute exposures to very high doses (Reichert, 1983). In dry cleaners chronically exposed to tetrachloroethylene, increased levels of markers of early renal damage and/or dysfunction were attributed to the exposure (Mutti et al., 1992).

The semen quality of 34 dry cleaners was compared with that of 48 laundry workers who were members of the Laundry and Dry Cleaners Union in the San Francisco Bay area and Greater Los Angeles, CA, United States (Eskenazi et al., 1991a). The sperm concentrations and the overall percentage of abnormal forms were similar in the two groups. The sperm heads of dry cleaners had significantly more round forms, fewer narrow forms and showed greater amplitude of lateral head displacement and less linearity in the sperm swimming paths. These subtle effects on sperm quality were related to the concentration of tetrachloroethylene in expired air; it was not established whether these changes affected fertility.

The study of Bosco et al. (1987), described in detail in the monograph on dry cleaning (p. 60), is relevant to tetrachloroethylene. Of the 56 pregnancies occurring during employment as a dry cleaner, five ended in a spontaneous abortion, whereas one of the 46 pregnancies that occurred in women who were not employed ended in a spontaneous abortion (χ2 = 3.05, p

Disturbances of sperm quality and fertility have been observed among dry cleaners exposed to tetrachloroethylene in a few studies of limited size. The results of studies of women exposed to tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning shops and other settings are generally consistent in showing an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions; however, other solvents were also present in most of these workplaces. Effects on other reproductive outcomes such as stillbirths, congenital malformations and low birth weight could not be evaluated in these studies.

Scope of delivery: Main device, high-performance industrial vacuum cleaner, type L, software (according to customer requirements), accessories (sieve adapter, slotted nozzle, acrylic glass lid, suction silencer, hammer, brush, power connection cable, operationg manual)

Because extremely fine powders tend to agglomerate and therefore clog up the sieve, the air jet sieve is the device of choice for sieving fine powders. This is where the air jet sieve e200 LS develops maximum effectiveness. Not just one, but two components work together here: a slotted nozzle which rotates inside the sieving chamber and an industrial vacuum cleaner connected up to the sieving chamber.

  • Connection of different vacuum cleaners

  • Fast analysis

  • Simple one-touch operation

  • Graphic user interface

  • Underpressure (in Pa), sieving time, date and time are displayed

  • Manual underpressure regulation

Current software updates require the HMI 2.0 operating display (integrated as standard in the e200 LS air jet sieve of newer model years). For units with HMI 1.0 operating display (year of manufacture 2010-2015 ) we offer an upgrade kit to HMI 2.0. This makes it possible to replace the panel without any problems. Numerous accessories as well as adapters for operation with other vacuum cleaners are available.

A cleaner approach is not to have global variables at all, but to placein a single file common variables (declared static) followed byall the functions which make use of them: this may result in moreefficient code.

Your vehicle's engine works best on a mixture of air and fuel. Any debris or other contaminants that get sucked into your engine along with air can damage its ability to run well. That's why it's important to replace a dirty or dusty filter for a cleaner engine. 041b061a72


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